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FN909 5.12,37 ; 150 

Jr/yn, Jrciehnd 


O F 

A R B A D O S, 


Firjfl: Difcovery and Settlement, 


End of the Year 1767. 


Printed for 

J. D D s L E Y5 in 






I. >^~mf:i: if 


• tS**^' 



t iii ] 


HE Author of the follow- 
ing fheets hath endea- 
voured faithfully and im- 
partially to relate the events that 
concern the antient colony of Bar- 
bados. His motive to this attempt 
was in fome degree a gratification 
of his amufement, by filling up 

fome leifure hours, in a manner 

a 2 not 

not totally ufelefs to himfelf or tlie 
public ; but principally to fhev/, 
that Barbados hath always pre- 
ferved a uniform and fteady at- 
^tachment to Great Britain, and 
therefore is intitled to the affeftion 
and indulgence'' nsf the iii^thtr 
country. All people naturallyA^^'im 
to receive fomc account of their 

native country ; of its conftitution, 
and its progrefs to power and opu- 
knee. If then this fhort perform- 
ance meets the approbation, or 
adds to the amufement, or gratifies 
the curiofity of the natives of that 
ifland, the Author will think the 


li y 3 

time he has employed in this com- 
poiition not mifpent. 

-1 Some one, with equal leifure 
and greater abilities^ may improve 
and make more perfedl this work. 
Indeed it is ftrange, that not any 
hiftorical account hath ever ap- 
peared of an ifland of fo much 
confequence to the mother country 
as Barbados is, whofe loyalty has 
often been experienced ; whofe af- 
fiftance never was denied ; and 
,whofe acquiefcence to the autho- 
rity of Great Britain ^ a late re- 

..Hr S: ^ 

Stamp Aft. 

}mh markable 

markable inflance hath fully exem- 
plified. An ifland too, to which 
belongs a merit peculiar to itfelf j 
that i^.laas not for threefcore years 
Pj^ft cofc one fhilling of expence 
to Great Britain, except a few 
pieces of cannon that were granted 
upon application many years ago • 
what falaries are paid by the crown 
to its oiScers are all provided by_ 
the four and half per ce?2t. duty. 

The difcance of time and place;, 
and the difficulty of gathering ma-, 
terials, will, it is hoped, excufe any 
mifreprefentations, or other errors 



[ ^ii ] 

that may appear in this work. 
The Author's acquaintance with 
many of the circumftances he re-j 
lates, authentic matters of record, 
and the affiftance of fome old 
writers^ as well as fome of modern 
date, have enabled him to throw 
together the following anecdotes. 
He hath been particularly attentive 
to the relation of fads. Truth 
ought to be the foundation upon 
which every fcribbling builder 
fhould ere6l his fabric ; notwith^ 
{landing the pleafant remark of an 
ingenious * author, whofe works 

. * Jenyns's Origin of Evil. 


the anions of mankind mve too 
great fandion to. " Truth," fays 
he, '' by her native beauty is fure 
^^ to charm ; yet from her repug- 
^^ nancy to moft men's interefts, 
^^ fhe is feldom welcome ; poHti- 
" cians are afraid of her, parties 
" deteft her, and all profeflions 
" agree, that fhe is very dangerous 
^^ if fujffered to o;o about in 
*' public," 



Hiilory of Barbados. 

of its Situation, Settlement, and 

ArbaJdos, the mofl conliderable 
and moft windward of the Ca- 
ribbee iflands, extends from la- 
titude 13 to 13. 20 N. and from longi- 
tude 58. 50 to 59. 3 W. from London. 
Its lituation gives it many advantages 
over the other Caribbees ; particularly 
that of its being the firft port where 


provifion fhips and others ufually ftop. 
It is ftrange that the EngliQi in general 

B are 

I; 2 ] 

^re fo much in the dark as they are,- 
with regard to their original pcfTeffion 
of that valuable ifland : nor can it be 
othervvife accounted for, than by the 
firft colonifcs being fo much immerfed 
in commercial purfuits, that they gave 
very little attention to matters of mere 
curiofity. Even the origin of its name 
is doubtful ; fome attributing it to a 
tree, whofe diftant appearance refembles 
a human beard. Others, perhaps vvitlx 
more probability, think, that it was firft 
called Los Barbados by the Portuguefe, 
from the barbarous uncultivated profpedt 
it afforded. 

When the Englifli firft difcovered 
Barbados, is not with certainty afcer- 
tained ^ but from the moft probable 


[ 3 ] 

accounts we are led to conclude, it 
muft have been between the years 1 6 1 5 
and 1624. When the great fire hap- 
pened in Bridge-Town in 1668, when 
many records were deftroyed, fome 
papers were preferved, which were af- 
terwards printed : by thefe it appeared, 
that an Englifh fliip called the Olive, 
homevv'ard bound from Guinea, touched 
there, and landed fome men, vAno fet 
up a crofs in or near St. James's Town, 
and marked on a tree, *' James king 
" of England and this ifland.'* After- 
wards, about the year 1624, it is clear, 
from many authentic accounts, that a 
fhip belonging to Sir William Courteen 
(one of the moil: confidcrable merchants 
then in London) flopt at this ifland. 
About thirty of the crew landed, and 

B 2 made 

[ 4 J 

made a fettlement on the vveftvvard part 
of the ifland -, although they found the 
country entirely uninhabited, and over- 
grown with thick woods. 

They chofe William Deane their 
leader, and erected the Britifli colours 
upon the infant fortifications. At the 
return of this ihip to England, the 
favourable report made of that ifland, 
induced Sir William Courteen and his 
friends to fit out two fhips, with all 
kinds of neceflaries for planting and 
fortifying this new acquired ifland y 
but his defign was no fooner known, 
than Hay earl of Carlifle applied for and 
obtained a gift from the crov/n of all 
.the Caribbee iflands. This, however, 
did not prevent Courteen's fiiips from 

failing ; 

C s ] 

falling ; for the earl of Carlifle happened 
gp that time to be abroad upon an em- 
baiTy : and Courteen availing himfelf 
of the earl's abfence, prevailed on his 
friend and patron, the earl of Pembroke, 
to obtain- from Charles I. a grant of 
this ifland, in truft, for Courteen. 

When the earl of Carlifle returned 
from his embafly, he vv^as furprized to 
hear of the fettlement that had been 
made upon an ifland that was within 
his prior grant, and refolved to defeat 
it : to this end, he made an agreement 
with five or fix merchants of London 
for ten thoufand acres in the nature of 
a leafe, to be fettled under the diredion 
of a perfon of their own chufing : the 
choice fell upon Charles Woolferftone, 

B 3 who 

i 6 ] 

who went to Barbados with fixty-four 
perlbns, to whom the ten thoufand acres 
had been granted. Woolferllone, foon 
after his arrival, emitted a proclama- 
tion, in which he treated the Pembroke 
fcttlement as an ufurpation, and fum- 
moned thofe fettlers to appear at the 
Bridge-Town : they obeyed 3 and being 
few in number, fubmitted to Carlifle's 
authority. — -The earl of Carlifle now 
applied to the throne to redrefs his 
grievances ; complaining of the wrongs 
done him by Sir William Courteen.— - 
The king hereupon annulled the grant 
to the earl of Pembroke ; and gave to 
the earl of Carlifle a fecond patent^ 
dated in April 1629, confirming the 
f>yriner, and explaining all doubts that 
hiid arifen thereto. 


[ 7 ] 

In 1629 the earl of Carlifle fent out 
<coIonel Henry Hawley governor of 
Barbados ; and though there were then 
but few inhabitants in the country, 
yet from this period to the government 
of Mr. Bell ia 1641 (when the civil 
v/ar drove great numbers of people 
from England thither) we find the 
jfland to have been continually in a 
Hate of mutiny and internal diffentions ; 
owing to the arbitrary and violent dif- 
pofition of Mr. Hawley, who was, at 
iail:, fent a prifoner to England, and his 
poiTeffions feized by Henry Flunkes for 
;treafonable pradices. 

The earl of Carlifle confirmed and 
approved the condud: of Hunkes, who 
alTumed the command of this little 

B 4 colony 

f 8 ] 

colony until the year 1641, when the 
earl appointed Philip Bell lieutenant- 
governor of Barbados. 

During the government of Mr. Bell, 
; Barbados v^as fettled, and a conflitu-- 
tional fyflem eftablifhed.. Laws were 
framed for the fecurity of property, and 
punifliment of vice. Then it was that 
the calamities of England ferved to 
people Barbados. Then it was that this 
infant colony afforded a fafe retreat to 
the inhabitants of her mother country, 
where many families, antient and opu- 
lent, having expended their patrimony 
infupport of monarchy, or having been 
plundered of their wealth by ufurpers, 
fought in this diftant ifle the re-efla- 
blilhment of that fortune they had 


[ 9 ] 

been robbed of, and the enjoyment of 
that peace they had been denied in their 

native land. Thus was Barbados 

peopled and fettled. ^ An old author, 
treating of this ifland, tells us, that 
Barbados was foonefl peopled of all our 
colonies, and was fettled by gentlemen 
of good families and moderate fortunes. 

To prove this aflertion, we could 
here mention many of the firft fettlers, 
who were tempted to migrate hither, 
and make this colony their afylum ; 
whofe anceflors were feated v/ith a 
comfortable affluence in different parts 
of England, and particularly in the 
counties of Cornwall, Devonfhire, Staf- 
ford, Worcefler, Hereford, Eflex, Suf- 

^ See vol, 2. of the BritiQi empire in America. 

!; folk. 

'folk, Kent : but mankind are all of a 
trace equally antient) and the bufinefs 
of hiftory is not to follow whimfical 
geneaiogifls, but to prefent objeds, 
and relate fadts, worthy to employ the 
attention of reafonable beings. 


During this period the inhabitants in- 
creafed fo fall, that it was computed 
that in 1650 there were twenty thou*if 
fand white men ; and that the ifland 
could then mufter ten thoufand foot 
and one thoufand horfe for its de-*t 
fence. Governor Bell now thought of 
making proper regulations for the go- 
vernment of an ifland become fo popa-fii 
lous and important. He, by the advice 
Gf a council of his own appointmg-, 


C ^i ] 

confifting of ten gentlemen, formed 
an affembly to reprefent the people. 
The iUand was divided into four circuits 

and eleven parifhes. The great in- 

creafe of Vv^hite men upon the ifland, 
occafioned a proportionable increafe of 
blacks to cultivate the land : this colony 
therefore was obliged, like the French 
and Spaniards, to import from Africa 
large numbers of negroes. This was 
at that time a dangerous, becaufe a new 
expedient. Thefe negroes in a fhort 
time beheld themfelves more numerous ; 
and therefore they thought themfelves 
more powerful than their matters. Not 
being, as they afterwards were, and 
now are, habituated to the intercourfe 
of Europeans, they foon entered into 


[ 12 3 

confplracies : and fo far were they hur- 
ried by a general fpirit of difcontent, 
that they even fixed upon a day for an 
univerfal rifing -, but the day before the 
maflacre was to have taken place, one 
of the party difcovered the plot to his 
mafler Mr. Hotherfall, who, by fend- 
ing immediate notice to the inhabitants, 
prevented the execution of the con- 
ipiracy, and brought the oifenders to 

It is probable, that the multiplicity 
of bufinefs of the Britlfh government 
about this period prevented that atten- 
tion to the affairs of Barbados, which 
ought to have been given to an infant 
colony. Mr. Bell continued to adl 
under the proprietary commiflion, until 


[ n 3 

Francis lord Willoughby not only ob- 
tained from Charles II. during his exile, 
a commiffion to be governor of Bar- 
bados, but alfo covenanted v^ith the 
earl of Carlifle for a term of years, upon 
a certain conlideration in the nature of 
a fee- farm rent, to be the proprietary 
governor likewife. In 1650 Francis 
lord Willoughby arrived at Barbados. 
He found the country flourifliing and 
populous, and the generality of the in- 
habitants v^ell afFedted to the royal 
caufe. One of the firfl fteps of his 
adminiflration v^as to fummbh an af- 
fembly, which pafled an ad:, intituled, 
" An acknowledgment and declaration 
" of the inhabitants of Barbados of 
his majefty^s right to the dominion 
of this ifland, and the right of the 

*" earl 



I H 3 

" earl of Carlifle derived from his faid 
^^ majefly ; and alfo for the unanimous 
" profeffion of the true religion in this 
*^ ifland, and impofing condign punifli- 
** ment on the oppofcrs thereof." The 
governor alfo, affifled by the ifland, 
adled with great fpirit and fuccefs in 
fitting out fhips, and raifing men to 
reduce the neighbouring iflands under 
his government to acknowledge the 
royal authority. 

In the mean time it was notified 
to the governor, that prince Rupert, 
who commanded the royal fleet, in- 
tended to fail to Barbados, and to fecure 
all the Englifh American pofieffions for 
the king. But this fcheme being dif- 
covered in England, a powerful fqua- 



[ 15 J 

dron was equipt under the commaii<f^ 
of Sir George Afcue, whofe intention- 
was to intercept prince Rupert, and 
to reduce Barbados, and the other 
iflands in the Weft-Indies, to the obe- 
dience of the Commonwealth. The 
1 6th of Odober 165 1, Sir Georg 
r appeared off Bridge-Town, and feized 
a 'few (liips that were in Carlifle-bay, 
Sir George found the fervice he was 
fent upon more difficult than he ima- 
gined. Lord Willoughby and the na- 
tives appeared determined to defend the 
ifland to the hft extremity ; and indeed 
the defence made upon this occafion is 
not to be wondered at ; for, exclufivc 
of the principle upon which that par- 
ticular fet of men afted, v/e fhall find 
in general, that the inhabitants of diftant 


[ i6 ] 

colonies will more readily fubmit to th'^ 
government of one than many. The 
forts in Carlille-bay proteded that har- 
bour fo efFedually, and fo formidable 
a body of men afTembled on the fliore, 
that although Sir George had on board 
two thoufand land forces, he could not 
efred his landing j but his fquadron was 
kept beating about the ifland till De- 
cember, when he anchored in Speight's 
bay 'y where (perceiving that his force 
was adually too fmall to reduce the 
iiland) he waited till the arrival of the 
Virginia merchant fleet, on board of 
which was a regiment of feven hundred 
men, and about one hundred and fifty 
Scotch tranfports : refclving to avail 
himfelf of this reinforcement, he im- 
mediately m^ade difpofitions for landing 


[ ^7 3 

all his men. The landing was efFeded, 
and Afcue's forces gained the fort at 
Speight's bay with four pieces of can- 
non ; but they fuftained great lofs in 
the attack. Lord Wiiloughby kept the 
field ; and though there was not any 
great probability of his effeftually ferv- 
ing the caufe he efpoufed, yet Afcue 
could make no impreffion upon his 
troops. At length Sir George Afcue 
offered to the inhabitants terms of peace 
that were mild and moderate. The 
planters, wearied out by the fatigue of 
the war, diftreffed too by the ruin of 
their eftates, whofe cultivation they 
were not allowed to attend to, and 
allured by the profpe(!:t of peace, liftened 

to the terms that were offered. A ne- 
gotiation enfued. Many of the mod 

C con- 

[ i8 J 

eonfiderable men of the illand imtne-^ 
diately declared for a peace. Lord Wil- 
loughby, thus apprized of the fcnti- 
ments of his friends, was obliged to 
agree to a cefTation of arms. Each 
party appointed four commiflioners, 
who, upon the 17th of January, agreed 
on articles of peace, alike comprehen- 
five and honourable : both parties were 
fecured in their freedom and property 5- 
as was lord Willoughby alfo, though 
he was obnoxious in the lafl: degree to 
the governing party in England. This 
moderation was of infinite fervice to 
Barbados ; nor was the pacification fol- 
lowed by any acrimonious meafures 
againfl the loyalifcs. Lord Willoughby 
immediately embarked for Europe, and 
we hear no more of him till after the 



I 19 ] 

Mr. Searle was now appointed go- 
vernor of Barbados, and continued fo 
until the death of Cromwell j when 
the Committee of Safety (as it was 
called) affumed the diredion of national 
'affairs, and gave the government of that 
ifland to colonel Modiford. 

,, About this time the ad of navio^ation 
took place in England ^ this, with the 
duties foon afterwards laid upon the 
manufad:ures of this country, reduced 
much its wealth. At this period too 
the population of Barbados began in 
fome meafure to decreafe, by the con- 
queft of Jamaica, and the cultivation 
of other iflands in America. Jufl: be- 
fore this, Barbados was fo well inha- 
bited, that in the expedition under Penn 

C 2 and 

[ 20 J 

and Venables againfl: Hifpaniola^- the' 
Barbadians alone furniflied three thou- 
fand five hundred foldiers -, little fore- 
feeing, that the cafual conqueft of Ja- 
maica would prove fo prejudicial to 
them, as it afterwards did« 

Charles 11. being reftored, and Hay 
earl of Kinnoul becoming heir to the 
Carlifle eflate, the king propofed to 
give him one thoufand pounds per 
annum for the furrender to the crown 
of the late earl of Carliile's patent for 
the Garlbbee iilands. Kinnoul accepted 
the offer \ and thus the proprietary 
government was difiblved, and Bar- 
bados reverted to the crown. 

The king, willing to reward lord 
Willoughby for his former condudl, 


[ 21 ] 

confirmed to him the government of 
Barbados by a new commiffion, ap- 
pointing him captain-general and go- 
vernor in chief of this and the reft of 
the Caribbee iflands for fQwcn years, 
with a falary of twelve hundred pounds 
fer annum. In this commiffion was 
inferted a new claufe, giving to the king 
a povv'er to approve or difallow of all 
laws that fliculd pafs in that iQand. But 
the advantages Barbados was to reap 
from the diiToIuticn of the proprietary 
government (he was like to pay dear 
for. The planters were now told, that 
•his majefty expedted the legiflature 
would grant him a proper confideration 
for the benefits they were to enjoy 
under a royal government. It was 
tirgeM too, that the earl of Carlifle had 

C 3 died 

[ 22 ] 

died much in debt, and that his debts, 
together with the thoufand pounds 
annuity granted to his heir, Jiiuft be 
fatisfied out of his patent. The de- 
mand was accordingly made. The 
Barbadians, not unmindful of their in- 
tereft, appointed agents in England to 
remonftrate againft this demand : but, 
alas ! the agents w^ere informed, that ji 
was expeded t hat Barbados would g^rant 
to the crown fo ur and an Jialf '^cr_cent. 
on the dead commodities of the pro- 

duce of th e ifland. The agents replied, 
that this would amount to a tax of ten 
per cent, of the clear profits of the 
planters eftates, and that it was a bur- 
den the country could not bear. The 
meafure, however, had been rcfclved 
upon, and the king, as well as the de- 
5 pendents 

pendents of his court, was fo greatly 
interefted in its fuccefs, that lord Wil- 
loughby agreed to carry it into exe- 
cution, by going over himfelf to Bar- 
bados. But his lordfhip not going 
immediately, this affair ilept for a fhort 
time ; and the adminiftration of affairs 
was left with Humphrey Walrond, efq, 
— This gentleman difcharged his duty 
_with great integrity and prudence : 
many ufefal and beneficial ads were 
^paffed by the legiflature during his ad- 
miniftration ; the good effeds of which 
are yet felt and acknowledged. 

In 1663 Francis lord Willoughby 
arrived again at Barbados. He found 
the inhabitants of all degrees extremely 
tout^ of humour with the tax that had 

C 4 been 

[ 24 ] 

been propofed. The royal iftsjhought^ 
it an ungrateful return for their fuffo;^ 

in gs, and the others oppofed it of CQurfe_. 
This oppofition gave the governor great 
difquiet. He called an ailembiy four 
months after his arrival ; and though 
the fpirit of the people ran high againfl 
the propofed tax, yet the affembly were 
prevailed with to comply ^ confirm--^ 
"ing to themfclves, by this purchafe, 
the great charter of Britifh fubjeds : 
however, they hoped, and intended that 
feveral public charges of the country 
fhould hkewife be defrayed by this tax : 
induced chiefly by this conlideration, 
they pafled an ad: with the following 
preamble. " As nothing conducetK 
«' more to the peace and profperity of 
<* any place, and the proteftion of every 

" fmgl 

[ 25 ] 

< fingle perfon therein, than that the 
' public revenue thereof may be in 
^ fome meafure proportioned to the 
' public charges and expences ; and 
^ alfo well weighing the great charges 
' that there muft be, of neceffity, in 

* maintaining the honour and dignity 

* of his majeily's authority here, the 
' public meeting of the feilions, the 
' often attendance of the council, the 
^ reparation of the forts, the building 
' a feilions-houfe and a prifcn, and all 

* other charges incumbent on the go- 
^ vernment 5 we do, in confideration 
' thereof, give and grant unto his ma- 
' jefty, his heirs and fucceffors for ever, 

* thaf is to fay, upon all dead com- 
' modities of the growth of this ifland, 
' that^ {hall be fliipped off the fame," 


[ a6 ] 

&c. &c. From hence it appears, that 
this tax (of the annual value of more 
than twenty thoufand pounds to the 
crown) was granted and intended to 
be applied to the payment of all public 
charges for the fupport of the govern- 
ment of this ifland. If then the public 
charges and expences, fet forth in the 
above preamble, have been anfwered 
by this import, then the Barbadians 
have no reafon to complain : but if, 
on the contrary, thefe articles have not 
been complied with, furely the intent 
.of this ad hath not been anfwered., 
and the inhabitants have reafon to be 
difpleafed with it. So ardent an op- 
pofition was made to the paffing of this 
aft, that lord Willoughby was appre- 
lienlive of a general revolt. He ordered 


[ 27 ] 

Mr. Farmer, a man of confequence in 
the oppofition, to be arreflcd, and fent 
over prifoner to England, with a charge 
againft him of mutiny, fedition, and 
treafon : when Farmer arrived in Eng- 
land, he was brought before the king 
and council, where he pleaded with a 
freedom which the temper of that 
court could not bear, and which lord 
Clarendon called iq^l^nt, and deferving 
imprifonment. Farmer urged the rights 
of an Englifliman, and that he had done 
nothing, but in a loyal, conftitutional 
manner. His plea became his demerit, 
and he was fent to prifon chiefly through 
the influence of Clarendon : nor did he 
recover his liberty till after a long te- 
dious confinement. The frailties of 
mankind are vifible in the wifefl: men : 


[ 2-8 ] 

able as lord Clarendon was, his conduft 
towards Farmer muft be acknowledged 
fevere. Thus was Mr. Farmer reward- 
ed for his patriotifm. From whence 
we may inforce this obfervation, that 
v^^^ are to take their lots in govern- 
ments as in climates, to fence againft 
the inconveniencies of both, and^^^^ 
bear what they cannot alter : for vain 
indeed will it be, to look for perfecft 
governments in a world governed by 
fiich imperfedl creatures as men. 

The attention of the Barbadians was 
now called to the defence of their iiland. 
De Ruyter, the Dutch admiral, ap- 
peared off Barbados in 1664, with a 

defign to make a defcent upon that 


[ 29 } 

ifland, and did a(flually attack fome of 
the forts in Carlifle bay ; but he was 
fo warmly received, and the Barbadians 
having drawn out their militia, made 
fo good an appearance on the beach, 
that the Dutch fquadron foon retired^. 
Two years afterwards lord Willoughby 
undertook an expedition againfl the 
Dutch fettlements to the fouthward : 
he appointed Henry Willoughby and 
Plenry Hawley, efqrs. to be deputy- 
governors in his abfence. — His lordfhip 
daring this expedition periflied by fhip- 
wreck. The new governors during 
their adminlflration executed a very 
ufeful defign. Their intentions were 
to reduce and afcertain the laws of the 
ifland^ which flood much in need of a 


t 30 ] 

proper arrangement *. An a£l accord- 
ingly paffed, which appointed com- 
mifGoners to colledl and amend what 
laws were in force ; and thele having 
received the royal aflent, continue 
among the ftanding laws of the ifland 
to this day* 

The death of Francis lord Willough^ 
by being known in England, the king 
appointed his brother William lord 
WiiloDghby to fuccecd him in the go- 
vernment of Barbados. This governor 
brought with him from England a regi^ 
ment of fcldiers under the command 
of Sir Tobias Bridge 3 bat we do not 

* The laws of Barbados are now become fo 
volumlnovis, that a proper redu(5tion and arrange* 
ment of them would be very ufeful to that ifland. 


r 31 ] 

find how they were deftined, or wha^ 
ufe they v^ ere of to the country. It> 
this adminlftration many regulations 
were made in regard to the laj^ courts 
of the ifland, and its internal police : 
an ufeful adl pafled alfo, declaring 
negro flaves to be real eftate, 

William lord Willoughby died in 
1674, and his place as governor was 
the fame year fupplied from England 
by Sir Jonathan Atkins. Thus ended 
the government of thefe two lords. 

Notwithftanding the juft complaints 
againft the duty of four and an half 
per cent, and the harfh proceedings 
againft Farmer, it muft be confeiTed, 
that the adminiftrations of thofe two 


[ 32 ] 

lords were prudent, and well calculated 
for the profperity of a young colony. 
After the Reftoration, the humour of 
preferring Jamaica to our other iflands, 
which had been adopted during the 
ufurpation, fubiided : and Barbados, 
latterly, recovered its ilrength fo greatly 
under its laft governor, that when Sir 
Jonathan Atkins arrived, the inhabit- 
ants were reckoned to be fifty thoufand 
white men, and feventy thoufand blacks 
or flaves : a number fcarcely credible 
to be fupported in fo fmall an ifland. 
But a dreadful hurricane in Auguft 
1675 changed much the face of the 
country : to heighten this calamity too> 
New Enofland was not in a condition 
at this time to fend hither the ufiial 

fupplies of provifions and timber; thu^ 


[ 33 1 

the crop of fugar being deflroyed, added 
to the rapacioufnefs of creditors, many 
families v/ere obliged to retire to other 
countries. The legiflature, among 
many ufeful plans for the relief of 
their ifland, agreed to prefent an addrefs 
to the government of Great Britain, 
praying that they may be relieved from 
'the duty of four and an half per cent. 
as the only means of preferving their 
country from ruin : but this indulgence 
was denied them, and their petition 
failed of fuccefs. It was in vain for the 
Barbadians to remonftrate upon their 
hardfliips, and to complain that none 
of the public-fpirited purpofes, for 
which that great tax had been granted, 
had ever been anfwered. Thus Bar* 
bados fl^ared not the fate of an elder 

D child. 

[ 34 I 

cbjid^^.the firft offspring of her mother 
country, but was left to recover her 

-- -^ - '" t^~ \ ^ -.4 

lofTes as file could. 

We find by the flatutes of this iHand, 
that about this time fome Quakers were 
very bufy in their endeavours to con- 
vert the negro flaves : their principles 
of non- refinance were far from being 
agreeable to a colony, which, like that 
of Barbados, was every hour expofed 
to invafion ^ and therefore an adt paffed 
to prohibit negroes from frequenting 
meeting-houfes : and the fame adl con- 
tained a claufe againfl Diffenters, to 
prevent their teaching pupils, and keep- 
ing fchcols upon the ifland. This was 
a precaution perhaps not impolitic in 
a colony, where labour was of more 

utility than learning. 


[ 35 ] 

Sir Jonathan Atkins being recalled, 
was fucceeded in April 1680 by Rich- 
ard Dutton, efq. in whofe commiffion 
the * members of his majefty's council 


* The members of council were : 

Henry Walrond, 
John Reide, 
Timothy Thornhlll, 
John Gibbes, 
Francis Bond, 
John Farmer, 
George Lillington, 

George Andrews, 
William Sharpe, 
Tobias Frere, 
Michael Terril, 
The Rev. Mr. 
Will. Walker. 

The members of the aflembly about this period 


r^i. 'fL r^^ u ( Thomas Maxwell, 
Chrilt Cnurch "? ta • j ft 

I Daniel Hooper, 

o T>i •!• ' C William Fortefcue, 

S. Philips < TT iv/r . 1 , 

^ I Henry Markland, 

S. John's 
S. Geor<Te*3 


S. Jofeph's 

f John Lellie, 
I James Colleton, 
c Richard Salter, 
I Miles Toppin, 
C John Holder, 
l Henry GoUop, 

D 2 

J- Efqrs. 
> Efqrs. 
J- Efqrs. 
i Efqrs. 
i Efqrs. 
i Efqrs. 

S. Andrew's 

[ J6 3 

wp;:g,:^|ft, jaiferted ^r^- pradlce, we apV 
prehend, that hath been continued finco. 
jfhe governor immediately iffued writs 
to eledl an affembly. This gentleman 
was received with great kindnefs and 
rcfped: by the inhabitants; for which 
he made a very ungenerous returni. 
He was tyrannical and cppreffive ; and 
his defpotifm was fo great, that many 
famiiieSj unable to endure his tyrannic 
Iway, quitted their country : this in- 
duced the iegiflature to pafs an ad: for 

_ . J ,5 William Dottln, 
S.Andrews -J Richard Walter! 

S, Thomas's j J°°='"^\"<P°?y"«' 
I Thomas badlicr, 

S. James's 
S. Peter's 
S. Lucy's 

C Abel Alleync, 
t William Holder, 
C Samuel Maynard, 
l Robert Harrifon, 
C Thomas Merrick, 
i John Gibbes, 




I 37 ] 

regulating the manner of giving tickets 
' out of the fecietary's office. In 1684 
an aft pafled to appoint a treafarer of 
the ifland ^and this office was conferred 
upon Mr. Salter. At this time too the 
militia was regulated and fettred by 
law\ The rebellion in the weft of Eng- 
land breaking out about this time, the 
legiflature pafled a fevere 'kft againft 
thofe rebels that were fent to Barbados, 
whereby their condition was rendered 
afrnfeft equal to a flate of flaver/r ' 

About this period a complaint was 
lodged in England againft Henry Wal- 
rogdi efq. a men^ber of council, for a 
petty charge againft him, on account 
of a trial before a court of oyer and 
termiper, in which Walrond prefided 

D 3 a^ 

[ 3S ] 

as chief juftice. After a full trial at an 
affize in England, he was fined only 
thirty pounds -, but his detention there, 
and the cxpences of his fuit (his ad- 
verfary being vigoroufly fupported by 
the governor) hurt much his fortune. 
At his return to Barbados, the ccujicil 
and affembly prefented to him five 
hundred pounds, as an acknowledge- 
ment of his former fervices to his coun- 
try ; and added a declaration of his juft 
proceedings at the court of oyer. 

In 1685 an additional duty Vv?'as laid 
upon fugar ; a burden upon the planters 
which confiderably reduced the value 
of their plantations. It could not fail 
to fill the world with aflonifhment, to 
obferve that the colonies, which brought 


[ 39 ] 

fuch wealth to the mother country, 
nurfing her fa'ilors, and increafing her 
rnanufadures, fhould be fmgled out as 
the hunted flag, and their inhabitants 
overloaded with taxes. The Barbadians 
reprefented their grievances to the go- 
vernment of Great Britain. They faid, 
that if a tax muft be laid upon trade, 
it might be laid upon all commodities 
alike 5 that a fmall advance upon all 
the cuftoms would ferve every purpofe, 
as well as a great one upon fome y and 
that this could be borne with more 
eafe, there being a larger number to 
partake of iL All their remonftrances 
availed them not any thing. Governor 
Dutton encouraged every motion to 
diflrefs the planters ; and was fo zea- 
,lous\a friend to the Roval African 

D 4 Com- 

[ 40 ] 

Company (which had much hurt Bar- 
bados) that when he went to England 
hccapppinted Edwin Stede his deputy- 
p;overnor, who was only an a?ent to 
the African Company, and fecretary to 
the governor. Stede had however the 
addrefs to eftablifh a precedent, which 
has ever fince been adopted : he pre- 
vailed with the leglflature to prefent 
him with one thoufand pounds ; frorrf 
whence it became cuftomarjr'ftflrtiakT 
prefents to the governors, who before 
this had only their Englifli falaryV 
Ab6iiii'''this time was a confpiracy'of 
the negroes \ which however was foon"^ 
difcovered and ftdpt : this occaiionea 
many ufeful ads to be paffed for "^tfre" 
government of negroes. 


[ 41 ] 

'J Soon after the Revolution king Wil- 
liam appointed' James Kendal, efq. go- 
vernor of Barbados, who, foon after his 
arrival there, tranfmitted to England 
very fatisfactory accounts of the loyalty 
and good difpofition of this colony : fo 
that the Revolution v/as productive of 
nQtchange in Barbados ; but all its in- 
habitants chearfuily and willingly ac- 
knowledged king William : they loved 
monarchy, confcious that it was an 
effential part of the excellent conftitu- 
tiqn of their mother country ; but they 
knew too, that the prefervation of that 
conftitution, and the happinefs of that 
country, required that a Proteftant kin 
mould wear the crown. 


During this adminiflration the inha- 
bitant's of St. Chriftopher, and the other 


[ 42 ] 

Leeward iilands, being much diftrefTed 
by^^ie" French, applied to Barbados 
for affiflance : the Barbadians readily'"* 
complied with their requeft ; and Ti-^ 
mothy Thornhill, efq. having offered 
his fervice, received a commiffion from 
the legiflatiire to raife a regiment 3 v^hich 
he accordingly did to the amount of ' 
feven hundred men, who were alt' 
cloathed, armed, and embarked at the  
expence of this colony : this expedition 
took place in Auguft 1689: the Bar- 
badians alfo raifed two regiments more 


of five hundred men each to affift th 
expedition againft Martinique * : ac- 
cording to the beft accounts this inva- 
fion was miferably mifmanaged, and 

* For the particulars of thefe expediugns fee 
rthe Biitifli einpire in America, vol. 2. ^ 


[ 43 ] 

what little effedual fervice was per- 
formed, the troops of Barbados and 
the Leeward iflands claimed the merit 
of. At this time the freight of fugar 
ran fo, high, and mafters offliipswere 
fo exorbitant in their demands, that the 
legiflative power was obliged to inter- 
fere, and by an a(5t of the ifland regu- 
late the freight of its commodities. 
This aft was afterwards repealed. 

In i6p4 Mr. Kendal was recalled, 
and the honourable Francis Ruffel was 
appointed governor of Barbados, where 
he arrived with his family the fame 
year. The council and affembly pre- 
fented their new governor with two 
thoufand pounds, and the following 
year gave him two thoufand more. 


Tlicfe expences caufcd great murmur- 
ings among the people, who became 
alarmed at fuch mifchievous prece-^ 
dents. In truth, the governors became 
now to be a fort of grievance by thefe 
exadions of money, which they ap- 
peared to look for as their right 3 for- 
getting that fuch gifts flow only from 
the benevolence of the inhabitants. ' ' 

In 1696 governor RuiTel died ; and 
Francis Bond, efq. the fcnidr member 
of the council, became prefident and 
comimander in chief. This*s 
adminiftration was produdlive of many 
wife meafures for the benefit of his 
country. Many ufeful laws were palTed, 
which remain vet in force. The in- 
habitants were eafy, and perfe<ftly fatif- 


. [ 45 I 

fied with their prefident : and, in tratit, 
we rtiall always find, that a man who 
both has an interefl in a country, and 
is,4,, native thereof, will be more con- 
eerned for the good governnnent of it, 
and more attentive to its profperity, 
than one who confiders it as a tempo- 
rary dwelling, whither he has procured 
himfeif to be fent to raife a fortune, or 
to patch up one going to decay. 

. J/1 1698 his majefty was pleafed to 
appoint the honourable Ralph Grey 
(afterwards lord Grey) governor of 
Barbados, where he arrived the 26th 
of July. An ad foon paffed, prefenting 
Mr. Grey with two thcufand pounds, 
and live hundred pounds for the rent 
of au houfe 3 Fontabelle houfe (the go-; 
b^a vernor's 

[ 46 ] 

vernor's refidence) being much out of 
repair. Governor Grey*s adniiniftration 
was very popular. The Barbadians, 
naturally hofpitable and generous, love 

a governor pofieffed of thefe qualities, 
Mr. Grey was generous and magnifi- 
cent, vv'hich endeared him to Barbados; 
a difinterefted difpofition, and a par- 
ticular attention to the welfare or that 
ifland, marked him a man of worth, 
who did not wifh, through avaricious 
views, to diftrefs the country he was 
fent to proteft. His health declining, 
he was obliged to leave his government 
in 1 70 1, when the command devolved 
upon * John Farmer, efq. the fenior 
member of council -, in whofe time 

* Son of Mr. Farmer, who was fent to England 
by lord Willonghby. 



[.47 ] 

liappened the death of king William^ 
and the acceffion of queen Anne. 
Events which were notified in form. 

In 1703 Sir Bevill Granville arrived 
at Barbados governor thereof: a new 
houfe was immediately built for Sir 
Bevill upon a fpot called Pilgrim-hill, 
wnich continues to this day to be the 
governor's houfe : the afiembiy, foon 
after the governor's arrival, was fo com- 
plaifant, as to appoint his brother one 
of their agents in Eng;land ; a cpnduft 
courtly Indeed, but not very politic 1 for 
the governors brother was wholly un- 
^(pguainted with that iiland, and its 
concerns : and an agent ought to be 
a man well verfed in the conftitution 
of the country he ferves, and who per- 


[ 48 ] 

feflly undcrftands her true intereft : 

attentive only to his agency, he fl:iould 

watch for occaiions to be beneficial to 

the country, with whofe weh^are he is 

entrufled : eftabhihing an intereil: with 

the board of trade, he ihould never 

be ignorant of what is doing at that 

office : v/ell acquainted with buiinef;?, 

he iliould endeavour to conned himfelf 

with, and have a perfeil knowledge of 

the forms, rules, and methods of the 

different offices he muft; tranfa6l buunefs 

'Vv'ith. It is m.uch to be wiihed too, for 

the benefit of Barbados, that the agent 

could always be a member of the Britiih 

parliament, as his confequence would 

then be much enlarged, and he would 

probably then claim a more refpedful 

attention from the miniflrv. 

i ' The 

[ 49 J 

The frequent prefents to governors 
having caufed much uneafinefs to the 
inhabitants, and having truly been found 
to be diftrefsful to the ifland, her ma- 
jefty was pleafed to augment the gover- 
nor's Engliih falary from twelve hundred 
to two thoufand pounds per annum. 
During Sir Bevill GranvilFs adminiftra- 
tion Barbados was miferably diftrefled 
by fadtions. Party raged high. Com- 
plaints were fent to England againft 
the governor by thofe in the oppoli- 
tion. Remonftrances followed from his 
friends 5 but we do not find, however, 
that any regard was paid to either. In 
the year 1705 the alfembly, taking into 
confideration the great want of cafh in 
the ifland, pafled an adl to allow iixty-* 
five thoufand pounds paper credit ; 

E impow- 

[ so ] 

impowering Mr* Holder the treafarer 
(who was alfo fpeaker of the aflembly) 
tQ sfiye out bills for that fum. Th^ 
men of greateft property in the ifland 
oppofed this fcheme with great vio- 
lence,but with little efFecSl.This aQ was fe- 
verely cenfured inEngland^and repealed 
immediately. The governor, diffatisfied 
with his fituation^ obtained his recall^ 
and died upon his voyage home* 

• > f 

In 1707 Mitford Crow, efq. arrived 
at Barbados, governor of that ifland^ 
He, m obedience tQ his inllrudions, 
removed all thofe gentlemen from the 
council,, and from all other office^ 
which they held under the crown*, 
who were concerned in promoting the 

paper credit ^8t» This fpread fo much 


[ 51 ] 

difcontent in the country, and rendered 
Mr. Crow's fituation fo irkfome, thatf 
it^%as foon thought proper to recall 
him alfo. 

He was fucceeded in 171 1 by Ro- 
bert Eo'WIHer, efq. who was tvi^icfe go- 
vernor of Barbados. His firft admini- 
ftration lafted till 1714, when he was 
recalled, atitj "M5f;^'Sharpe, the fenidir 
member of the council, became pre- 
fident. In 1715 his majefty was pleafed 
to appoint Mr. Lowther again to this 
government* Both periods of his ad- 
miniftfations were very unpopular, dif^ 
peafing to himfelf, and difagreeable to 
the inhabitants. Parties were early 
formed againft him, which always 
gaTIed him during his nine years refi- 

E 2 dence 

[ 52 ] 

dence upon the ifland ^ yet he botli 

-iO U 'iu . 1/il ■■' /- , -' 

times gained a handlome lettlement* 
During his iirft adminiftration he fuf- 
pended three members of couqeil, Mr* 
Sharpe, Mr. Walker, and Mr. Berisford. 
The queen took oflF their fufpenfion. 
They were neverthelefs withtield for 

fome fhort time from fetting; in couii- 

^ '''■■•. i. f I. y\ ' 

cil *, which confequently ftopt the 

couiie of bunneis, and was thereby or 

the utmoft prejudice^ to' the country. 

However, the three members at length 

re-affumcd their feats, and nothing more 

^was heard of this matter. During his 

fecond adminiftration many complaints 

from time to time were exhibited againft: 


* In the Carlbbeana, publlfhed In 1741, is a 
sfery fenfible opinion of Mr. Codrlngton, relative 
to this fufpenfion. 

7 him J 

t 53 ] 

J)imi partlcularlj for his perfecution of 
the reverend Mr. Gordon, redor of St. 
lyiichaers parifh, an^l the bifhop's com- 
miilary ; ao:ainfl whom fome harfli,pro- 
(feedings having pafTed, Gordon apr 
pealed to the crown. He obtained froni 
the lords iuffices (his maiefly bein? then 
at Hanover) an order to take depofitions 
at Barbados \ and the governor (who 

was the accufer) had the fame privi- 

io yo^i^r km ^ 

lege. Gordon returned to Barbados, 
andferved this order upon the 2:overnor, 
who paid {o little regard to it, that he 
committed Gordon prifoner to the com- 
mdn gaol. At the court of oyer, where 
Gordon was tried, the governor pre- 
fided. This ftep, though very unufual, 
is neverthelefs agreeable to law. But 
fuch were the meafures of thijB court, 

E 3 tha4 

[ 54 1 

that the governor even profecuted the 
council and attorney who appeared in 

wit ; 1 . , • . 

behalf of Gordon : the former went to 
England, and prefented thefe proceed- 
ings with proper complaints againft the 
governor 3 which had fo good an efFeft, 
that the lords juftices (in the king's 

abfence) fent to Barbados an order 
conceived in the ftrongeft terms 'agaihfl: 
the governor, ordering that the pro- 
ceedings at that court in this affair 
fhould all be vacated. In confequence 
of this and other complaints Mr. Low- 
ther was recalled. He left the ifland 
in May 1720 5 but before his departure 
he fufpended Samuel Cox, efq. the 
eldeft member of the council; and 
John Frere, efq. the next m^ember of 
C:ouacil, became prefident, Soon after ^ 


f 55 3 

this. Sir Charles Cox petitioned the 

^king ngainft governor Lowther, for 
having removed his brother from the 
_^o,uncil in an illegal and arbitrary man- 
ner 5 and his majefty v^as pleafed to 
fend an order to Mr. Frere to refign 

>the command to Mr. Cox : but by 
fome means or other this order was 
not complied with 5 and Sir Charles 

.Cox enforcing his complaints, Mr. Fra:e 
W'as fummoned to appear before the 
king and council of Great Britain : he 

■v^cordingly in 172 1 refigned the go 
vernment to Mr, Cox, much againft 
the inclinations of the inhabitants of 
Barbados. He immediately went to 
England, where he was given to ub- 
derftand, that his being fent for was to 

E 4 place 

[ 56 3 

el^^u^F ^^^ ^f.£2Sl?:.way, and ta 
break the rage of party, 

Mr. Cox acceded to the government 
of Barbados at a time when party raged, 
high againft him. The tranquillity 5^ 
had pafled -, the defign of which was 
to keep all officers, &c. in their places 
in fpite of the prefident's power *^ .jjp^^ 
all the chief offices of the ifland were 
filled with Cox's enemies ; fo that whea 
he took pofleffion of the command, 
he was fo hampered by the oppofition,- 
that he thought himfelf obliged to have 
recourfe to a very extraordinary ftep ;^ 
he fu(pended five members of council 
at one time, and fwore in five othcrsif 
in their places. The fufpended mem- 

* This a6l was repealed, 


t 'S7 ] 

bers were immediately reftored by the 
crown : a circumftance of fuch triumph 
to that party, that they exulted more 
than ever, and perplexed the affairs of 
government fo much, that even the 
iSmfe bill, which was abfolutely ne- 
ceffary for the fupport of the public, 
was in danger of being lofl. It 
muft be owned too, that Mr. Cox did 
r^ behave with requifite moderation : 
tf^ ted rem veSf Trom th e b e n ch of 
juftices feveral gentlemen of fortune, 
particularly Guy Ball, efq. a member 
of^the council,' an3^^ had endeavoured 
t&^lcommence vexatious profecutioris^ 
againft them. In confequence of the * 
abufe Mr. Cox' made of his power, in"" 
aH fubfequent inftrUctions from the ' 
^rown the authority of prefidents was 
^-^ much 

[ S8 ] 

much limited, and their power reduced 
to what it is at prefent. It is aftonifh- 
ing, that in fo fmall a fpot, party- rage 
ihould grow to fuch an excefs : never 
was any country more torn to pieces by 
parties, than Barbados was about this 
period ; but, alas ! we find faftion and 
its ill confequences prevailing in almoft 
all countries ; and in thefe little com- 
munities, where not any gain is ac- 
quired, vanity operates, as venality does 
in great ftates. 

.'His majefly, willing to relieve the 
diftreffes of Barbados, in 1722 appoint- 
ed Henry Worlley, efq. governor of 
that ifland, and gave him inftruftions 
and power to enquire into the condudt 

^0f prefident Cox, and to decide thereon 

a as 

;[ 59 ] 

as he fhouid judge moft propeitfcOo- 

vernor Worfley, when he arrived at 

Barbados, conduded himfelf with fo 

much policy, that neither party thought 

him their enemy ; and therefore both 

parties courted him for their friend, 

and both v/ere equally flattered by the 

governor. Each fide made him large 

offers I and thus was the affembiy 

brought to give him the enormous 

revenue of fix thoufand pounds per 

annum. The governor, having gained 
this great point, and the heavy tax of 

two {hillings and fix-pence being laid 

upon each negro for defraying this 

falary, he proceeded to enquire into 

the ftate of the ifland before his acceC- 

fion. He fummoned Mr. Cox to a 

fpimal trial ^ and he determined, that; 

.: ^ Mr, 

[ 6c. ] 

Mr. Cox had adled, during his prefi* 
dentfliip, corruptly, arbitrarily, and ii le- 
gally; and therefore he not only re- 
moved him from being of his majefty's 
council, but alfo declared him incapable 
of ever being a member of that board ^; 

This admlniftration was marked by 
the death of his majefty king George L 
The Barbadians had very fevereJy:felt 
their diftrefs, occafioned by the bur^ 
denfome falary given to the governor, 
which, in truth, had much opprefTed 
that whole ifland : they therefore feized 
the opportunity of the king's death', a!S 
a plea to fave their money, by rcfufing 
to pay the tax of two iliiliings and fix- 

* Mr. Cox pafled the remainder of his life upon 

the continent of N. America. 


I 6i ] 

pence laid up(i^ .^negroes 5 aflerdn^ 
that by the king's death the governor's 
commiflion ccafed, and confequently 
the law which provided for the main- 
tenance of the governor became void. 
But this fallacy did not fucceed, though 
it caufed much diforder in the country. 
Mr. V/orfley prefented a memorial to 
the throne, in confequence of which 
his majefty was pleafe to dired: (agree- 
able to the opinion of his attorney and 
folicitor general) " that in cafe the 
" arrears of the faid tax was not paid 
" on or before the ift day of July next, 
M that his majefly's attorney general of 
<i Barbados do caufe proper law-fuits 
" to be commenced againft all perfons 
** liable to pay fuch arrears, &c." and 


[ 62 1 

thefe arrears were accordingly reco-^ 
vered. « 

Mr. Worfley left the government of 
Barbados in 173 1, and Samuel Berwick; 
efq. prefident of the council, fucceeded 
him. Mr. Berwick (as feveral of his 
predeceflbrs had 'dorie) executed his' 
commiffion without any falary or pre- 
fent from the affembly : a circumftance 
much to his hohdul-JQ^^ -^ -^ -^^ .^-^i 

/. to 

He died the year following, and 
James Dottin, efq. the next member ol* 
council, became commander in chiefl 
The legiflature, by an ad: of the iflafid^ 
fettled four hundred pounds per anjiuth 
upon Mr. Dottin ; a proof at what ^rf 

[ 63 ] 

eafy expence the bufinefs of this govern-* 
ment was then carried on, ,b:jij, 

j^|{]f, 1733 lord vifcount Hovve was 
appointed governor of Barbados : h^ 
arrived in that ifland the fame year, 
Xhe legiflature fettled four thoufand 
pqpn4§,upon his lordfhip : a large fum 
indeed for the circumftances of the 
ifland at that time f but which, how^ 
ever, the governor generoufly expend- 
ed in the ifland. The univerfal good 
charafter of this nobleman filled every 
heart with joy upon his arrival: hh 
lordfliip did not difappoint the hopes 
and expectations of Barbados, By a? 
generoflty of temper, and a compla* 
cency of deportment; by an equitable 
difljibution of juftice, and a fteady ad-* 


r 64 ] 

herence to the conftitutlon and true 
intereft of the country he prefided 
over, he preferved the ifland free from 
fadion, and gained the affedion and 
^fteem of all the inhabitants. So pacific 
a period affords little matter for hiftory 
to tranfmit. The good agreement be- 
tween the governor, council, and af- 
fembly, produced the beft eifefts for 
the mother country, as well as for the 
colony : and furely never was there an 
experiment made with fo much fuc- 
cefs of what importance the right choice 
of a governor is to the profperity of 
this or any other of our fugar iflands ; 
yet it has been faid, that if this noble- 
man had lived a few years longer, he 
would haxe ruined Barbados by the 
introduction of luxury : but, alas ! ex- 

perlence hath fully taught us, that if 
the inhabitants jQ^^that country poflefs 
the means of indulging luxurious dif- 
lipation, the pradice will be obtained 
in the mother country, if the times for-*;^ 
bid the enjoyment of it in their native 
ifle : but (for a moment) fuppofe the 
charge to be in fome degree true ; Was 
it not an honefl policy in the governor, 
to divert in pleafures and amufements 
that wealth which had formerly fo 
often kindled the flames of party ? 
Lord Howe died in March 1735 5 the 
council and aflembly (applauded by 
all their countrymen) to teflify their 
grateful remembrance of his lordfliip, 
as well as to diftinguiili virtuous merit, 
prefented two thoufand five hundred 
pounds to lady Howe. 

„ ' F Mr. 

[ 66 3 

Mr. Dotin fucceeded again to the- 

eommand, and received a fettlement 

of fix hundred pounds fcr annum : his 

"idminiftration was gentle and inof- 


'. tiVi ,6:. 

. . In ! 73 p the honourable Robert By ng^ 
.was appointed governor of Barbados, 

where he arrived loon after his appoint- 
■' snent. The times were unfavourable 
to Mr. Byng. He came to the govern- 
ment at a time when the houfe- of 
reprefentatives feemed pertinacioufly 
devoted to the will of their fpeaker 
Henry Peers^ efq. a gentleman who 
had been difappointed in his hope of 
procuring the government of Barbados 
for himfelf, and whofe imaginary inte- 
reft and real intention it was to diftrefs 



[ ^«7 ] 

the new governor. " From men*^ (fays 
the great Sully) *' all things may be 
" expefted : they are not to be kept 
i^Vfirm to their duty, integrity, and the 
*' laws of fociety, by fidelity and virtue, 
" but by their hopes and wifhes." Mr. 
Byng was by the iirft addrefs of the 
, aiSembly, as well as by private confe- 
rences, entertained with declamations of 
"jjtha poverty of Barbados, and the ftedfaft 
rrefolutions of its reprefentatives con- 
tccerning his appointment, which, they 
';ifaid, could not be equal to his prede- 
xeffors. The governor obferved, " that 
ii0^< the country was now in a more flou- 
^' rifliing condition than his predeceffor 
" found it in 3 he was confcious of 
'^'^' having brought with him as good 
Si^his F 2 " inten- 

[ 68 3 


'* intentions as the bed: of fais predc- 
^: cefTors, but that if < he was lefs con- 
" fidered than his immediate prede- 
ffjcefior, he could not avoid thinking 
" it was fetting an ignominious mark 
** upon him; an indignity under which 
" he could not lit eaiy." But he could 
not obtain more than two thoufand 
pounds per annuml yet to' render this 

more palatabje,. .an ^.ad^mqnal, .|?i;9fent 
•was added of two thoufand five hun- 
dred pounds to repair the governor's 
loifes at Tea, the fliip in which his 
baggage was, having been taken by the 
Spaniards. This was certainly an a<S 
of generofity in the aflembly. The 
breach betv/een the governor arid 
fpeaker was now notorious, and faftion 
7 'again 

f 69 ] 

again reared its bead-.^^i>t At length the 
fpeaker was fiript of ail the pofts which 


-''''* HsDry PeerS;, tfq. fpeaker of the affembly, 
was lieutenant general, mailer geDes^al of the ord- 
Bance, prefident of the council of war, colonel of a 

regiment of nuHtia, ^x^d a judice of peace,.^ , j^e wa5 
fucceeded as lieutenant general, mafl:er general of 
the ordnance, and prefident of the coiiDcil of war, 
h'^ Thomas Applewhaite, efq. one of the members 
of his majef^y's council, and who had been major 
general and colonel of the Whidward regiment : 
thefe two gentlemen were many years contempo- 
raries. They both gained honour and reputation 
in their country ; but -with very diiferent tempers, 
tfij^y attached themfelves early to oppofite parties, 
and frequently tfpoufed contending intereils : yet, 
flpnge to fay I they lived together in a clofe in- 
timacy. Mr. Peers had good fenfe, and flrong 
natural abilities, and acquired a peculiar dexterity 
■^h the management of a party. His fondnefs of 
power plunged him deep in fa<5lion. He was 

F 3 every 

[ 70 ] 



he held under the crown. A circum- 
ftance'tfiat affords a remarkable sera in 

M h»-^ 

every man'*s enemy that oppofed his party, and' 
was often ferved through fear. His paffions were 
impetuous and unmanageable. He was generous, 
lively, fanguine, intrepid, ambitious. In friend- 
(hip warm : in refentment implacable. He claimed 
the title of a great man. By his death a powerful 
party loft their friend and patron. Mr. Apple^ 
whaite pofTefled a found judgment, and an amiable 
difpolition, and was tOQ.caindid and diflnterefted 
for the intrigues of facflion. His moderation dif- 
cngagcd him from the inconveniencies of party- 
zeal. He was every man's friend that n^^d^d 
his friendfhip, and men were attached to him by 
afFe<5lion. His paffions were under the command 
of his reafon. He was compaffionate, affable, 
fmcere, ca|m, refolute. In friendfhip fleady : in 
refentment placable. All men, with a united 
voice, called him a good man. By his death the 
poor loA thdr father and fupport. . t^vo^ „ 

^^^m^ this 

f 7' J 

this admlniftration. Mr. Peers died 
fpQn after, and tranquillity was re-a(^., 
fuming its empire throughout the 
iiland, when death fnatchedjipm the 
world the governor himfelf. Mr. Byng s 
adminiitratlon was fliort and a^live. 
|g[e lived only ten months in Barbados. 
His refolution and aftivity s his laba- 
rious and indefatigable turn for bufinefs, 
and an application which nothing could 
divert 5 his attention to the defence of 
the ifland he commanded by forming 
its militia, and repairing its fortifications 5^ 
and his fchemes for the extention of 
trade, joined to his prudent difcern- 
ment, which produced the befl: com- 
xpifnon of the peace ever iffued in that 
ifland, led many to regret the death of 
a governor, of^^whom they had enter- 

F 4 tained 

[ 72 ] 

tallied great expedlations, notwithfland- 
ing the early oppoiidon he encoun- 
tered ^. V 

^ In 1740 Mr. Dotin again became 

pre(ident,i^:^nd continued fo until the 

arrival of Sir Thomas Robinfon in 


* Mr. Byng's good fenfe fliewed itfelf very 
flrong in this remarkable inllance. The aflem- 
bly f»refented an addrefs to him of the 8th of 
July 1740, which, from a previous knowledge, 
he thought was extremely fevere and unkind to- 
wards him: he, neverthelefs, with a gracious 
fmile, received it, made no reply to it, but with 
great cordiality and apparent friendlhip carefTed the 
alTembly-men who prefented it, and all others that 
fell in his way ; and actually did give a lucrative 
' employ ment to one of them the next day 


[ 73 1 

When Sir Thomas Robinfon arrived' 
at Barbados, an unuiual fhynefs pre- 
vailed in the affembly towards their 
new governor. The preceding affem- 
bly had refoivcd not to make any fettle- 
ment whatever upon a future gover- 
nor : neverthelefs, the then affembly 
granted to Sir Thoinas three thoufand 
pounds per annum. The inimitable 
Sully, the ableft politician, and (what 
is more to his honour) the mofl unpre- 
judiced man that hiflory furniflies us 
with an account of, remarks, '' that the 
" word parliament carries with it an 
*' idea of equity, and even Vv^ifdom > 
" yet in thefe bodies v/e meet with 
^' fuch inftances of irregularity, that one 
*' cannot help concluding, that if in- 
. ^^/allibility may be hoped for among 

" men. 

[ 74 ] 

** mcn^ it will be found rather in one _:^ 
" than a multitude." To Sir Thomas 
Robinfcn Barbados is indebted for an j 
excellent armoury ; the bell in the 
Weft Indies, which he built at his own 
expence, and the utility of which that 
ifland hath experienced ever fmceioH :JA 

qui ^d 
Sir Thomas remained at Barbados 

nntil the arrival of his fucceffor the 
honourable Henry Grenville in 1747- 
The council and affembly fettled three 
thoufand pounds per annum upon Mr. 
Grenville, whofe adminiftration was i 
during the calm of peace, confequently 
not very interefting. The Barbadians, ! 
taught by experience the mifchievous 
effeds of party, united to render Mr. 
Grenvilk's fituation agreeable to him- 


['75 ] 

fclfy which his addrefs rendered not 
difpleafing to them. Abroad, he main- 
tained the honour of his royal mafler, 
particularly by the fuccefsful effort he 
made to prevent the French from fet- 
tling Tobago, then a neutral ifland. 
At home, unattached to any fadtion, 
he fupported his commiffion with a 
pompous ftate ; and though all con- 
fefled the haughtinefs of the man, they 
could not but admire the dignity of 
the governor. In governments, as well 
as in courts, all things are brought about 
by artifice. The governor had the fuc- 
cefs, at the clofe of his adminiftration, 
to obtain thofe public marks of appro- 
bation which were never before laviflied 
upon any governor 5 for fo far did the 
then, affembly proceed in their pro- 


[ 7(^ ] 

feffions of efteem to this orentlemgii,. 
that they voted a flatus of him fpne. 

. ' •• > 

member only diiTenting) to be ereded. 
m the town-hall, v/here thecour^Supf. 
juftice are held, ip^lionour to his mfe 
moxyj and to exemplify to poRerity. a 
pattern of juflice and integrity. Mr>j 
Grenville cpnjip^ijgd governor of Bar-*; 
bados till May 17535 when he applied 
for and obtained leave to return to 

Ralph WeekeSj efq, the fenior mem- 
ber of the council, was then invefted 
with the command. The alTembly 
gave him twelve hundred pounds per 
annum:, to fupport the honour and dig- 
nity of the king's commiffion. 


[ n 3 

In Augufl: 1756 Charles Pinfold, efq« 
governor of Barbados, arrived, in that 
ifland. He obtained a fettlement of 
t?hfee thoufand pounds fer annum, A 
quietj eafy governor fuits befl a colony j 
fuch was Mr. Pinfold, whofe qualities 
were wholly negative. His adminiftra- 
tion was long and intereftiiig. During 
this period the Barbadians bore no in- 
confiderable fliare in the glorious events 
which diflinj^iaifhed the Britifli arms 
durinp" the laft war. A refoludon 
having been formed in England to re- 
duce the ifland of Martinique (the key 
of the Caribbees) the lame was com- 
municated to the .2-overnor of Barbados. 
^The governor immediately called to- 
gether the council and aflembly, and 
having communicated this intclligencej 
^ a law 


a fiiW paffed for affixing his majefty*s 
forces 5 when the inhabitants, regardlefs 
of the injury their trade muft receive, 

» jr 

and Vvhich it afterwards did receive?/ fcy 
the acquiiition of the large and valuable 
ifland of Martinique, gave their affift- 
ance with a zeal, unanimity, and fpirit, 
fcarcely to be paralleled. Five hun- 
dred and eighty -eight white men 
(volunteers) were' expeditioufly raifed, 
clothed, and paid by the country 3 to 
thefe were added five hundred and 
eightV-three negroes. They joined his 
majefty's forces, and affifted at the re^ 
dudtion of Guadaloupe, This expe^ 
dition coft Barbados * twenty -four 
thoufand pounds currency, befides a 

* Ten thoufand pounds were repaid by the 


' I ' 79 ] 

large fupply of .grovifions, which the 
Barbadians fent to the forces while they 
v/ere befieging Guadaloupe. During 
, ,this adminiftration the ftamp a<a pafied 
^ the parliament of Great Britain. This 
a€t threatened a precedent big with fatal 
i^ifchief I yet this colony fubmitted to 
its validity, and trading to the equity 
o| the Britifh legiflature for its repeal,, 
when its pernicipus tendency jfhould 
be perceived, was content with remon- 
ftrating againil: its oppreffion. This a(5b 
was foon repealed; but during the few, 
months it was in force, the fum of two 
thoufand five hundred pounds was col- 
lefted at Barbados, and remitted to 
England. Governor Pinfold, having 
obtained leave to return to England, 


[ 8o J 

embarked on board the Britannia, capf, 
Davis, the 27th of May 1766. 

Samuel Rous, efq. the fenior mem* 
ber of council, then refident upon the 
ifland, acceded to the command, and 
took the oaths of office immediately 
after the departure of the governor* 
The council and affembly fettled fifteen 
hundred pounds per annuin upon the 
prefident during his refidence at Pii- 
^rim-houfe ; nor do we find that this 
gentleman hath proved himfelf un- 
worthy of the generofity of his coun- 
trymen. He hath fupported the dig- 
nity of his ftation with a fplendor and 
magnificence equal to the unufual 
largenefs of his falary, and hath ac- 
quitted himfelf in other refpefts to the 


t 8i 1 

fatisfadlon of his country, notwlth- 
ftanding he has been engaged in a 
point of feme delicacy with the prefent 
fpeaker of the affembly. John Gay 
Alleyne, efq. having been chofen ipeak- 
er of the houfe of reprefentatives, and 
approved of by the commander in 
chief, immediately claimed from the 
king s reprefentative the allov^ance of 
certain privileges^ ^ which he alledged 
the reprefentatives of the people were 
intitled to. Thefe privileges are, firft, 
exemption from arrefls to themfeives 
and fervants. 

Secondly, Liberty of fpeech. 

Thirdly, Accefs at all times to the 
king's reprefentative. 
,]tp.-^ .. . - G To 

I: 82 ]] 

Tajthls demand the prefident faldv^ 
*VHe would give his anfwer at the next- 
!liij^lng of the affembly/* cautioufly* 
taking time for confideration and ad-^ 
vipe^; and his anfwer being at length^ 
given, was, *' That, as far as lay in hist^' 
".power, he granted the demand.i^'^i 
The obfervations that arife from :thi^F 
anfwer are too obvious to be illuftrated)H 
here ; however, it is but juftice to ac-^i:? 
knowledge, that it was the moll pru-^ il 
dent the prefident could have given: 
(or Ai;^^^.^ had abfolutely and unre-'T 
fe^vedj J granted the demand, he mighl 
(and perhaps with juflice too) have, 
been cejifured by the government in. ; 
England ; and indeed it jxiufl have been . 
confirmed by a higher power than the;;^!; 
prefident's, before it could have had- , 

' ^' " efFedt: 


% ] 

eff^d: : on, the .Qtber hand, Jiad^h^ .re.- 
jedled the demand entirely, the remaki*-^ 
ing fhort period of his adminiftration 
alight have be^n imbittered byxhflen- 
tions and difpittes. In regard to the 
privileges thus demanded, it may be 
ot^feryed, tha.t. . the exemption front 
arrefts was never claimed, confequentljrv 
never poffefled by any preceding af- 
fembly. If ia.ijjeant an exemption 
from arrefts at all times, the precedent-^v 
mqft have a fatal tendency toaffqft the 
credit of Barbados , nor would the in- ^ i. 
jury be much lefs, prejudicial, if co4i- ,< J;}?^;4aji^^ftf.the allembJy V fit- - 
tin^^. for under the proteftion .of fer*- > 
van ts, May not the power be^given .ta^^. 
fcre^nftom debt, .and to find. an oppor-?, , conv.ey ,from off- the-illand,.- 
G 2 a num- 


[ 84 I 

a number of flaves ? The police of Bar- 
bados is not altogether fimilar to that 
of Gfta^ Britain : but even if it was^ 
How could the community in general, 
by any means, be benqjSted by their 
reprefentatives being exempt from ar- 
refls ? Much indeed might be faid upon 
this fubje(5t j but what however v^^buld 
with more propriety adorn the fpeecb 
of a legiflator, than grace the pen of 
an hiftorian. What has already Been 
or may farther be faid on this fubjeft, 
is offered with all imaginable refpedt 
and deference to the prefent honefl: and 

upright affembly of that country, who 
can have no intereft divided from that of 
their country. The privilege of fpeech 
to the reprefentatives of a people is a 
conftitutional privilege, inherent in that 
body : it is ftrange then, that a gentle- 


I 8s ] 

man of the fpeaker's lively imagination 
iliOuld appear not to know he poffefTed 
this valuable privilege, by making a de- 
mand of it. As to accefs to the king's 
-f^prefentative, this privilege is in itfelf of 
fo innocent and harmlefs a nature to the 
public^ that no more prejudice could arife 
from refufing its admiffion, than good 
could accrue by granting of it. 

lomTo conclude. Thefe Tallies of the 
fpeaker's genius bring to our remem- 
brance. a faying of king James the Firft, 
as related by lord Bacon : " When car- 
** dinal Evereux (fays Bacon) having in 
(" a ■rubje(3 of divinity fprinkled many 

H,<f* ornaments of learninp;, the kine faid 
f^ they were like the blue, and yel- 
" low, and red flowers in corn, which 
v^ G 3 *' make 

[ si J 

*^"^ "pake a pleafant fhew, but hurt the 

'0h the ill of September 1767, at 
a" meeting of the general aflembly-^'li^ 
committee of thathoufe was appointed 
tO' prepare a petition (in conjunflibn ' 
with a committee of the council) to " 
be prefented to the commons houfe of ^ 
parliament of Great Britain, reprefenf- ' 
ing the diftrefles of the ifland'bjf fflS"'^ 
two laft dreadful fires in the chief" ^" 
town, the intention of the inhabitants ' 
to rebuild the town on a fafer plari^^l 
and to make convenient wjiarfs, and 
cleanfe the Mole-head ; and further 
repreienting the great expence attendS^'^ 
ing thefe works, and the inability of '^ 
the eouBtry wholly to proviiiVfor 9iem"P"' 


:t 87 ] 

and therefore praying the afiiflance of 
that honourable houfe on the cccafion. 
This is a reprefentation jnfl and necef- 
fary, and this a conduft much to the 
honour of the legiflature of Barbados : 
no doubt, the reception that this petition 
v/i!l gain from the commons of Great 
Britain, will reflcdl equal honour upon 
that refpeclable body. The cleanfing 
of the Mole-head, and ereding proper 
wharfs for the convenience of trade, 
are works of the utmoft advantao-e, and 
therefore , of the greatefl confequeno:^ to 
this trading ifland ^ but whofe utility 
will not be confined to this fpot alone, 
but muft fpread its influence tlvrougli- 
out all the Britifli dominians. "^Th 

* The Mole is a river thai runs through the 
foutheafl part of Bridge-town, and fiilk Into Car- 
Klli2-l)ay ; and is now choaked np by fand and 
mud brought into it by the tides. 

I 85 ] 

Mole, when effe£tually ckaned, will 
afalft^'afford a fafe retreat to fliips. of 
burden in the mofl tempeftuous feafon^ 
whereas now it cannot prote(ft the 
rmalleft veffel : add to this, the alarm- 

inf^ and increafino; inconvenience of 

landing and fliipping all kinds of mer- 
chandize, aoii . 

b I if 03- 

His majefly hath lately been pleafed 
to appoint Vv'illiam Spry, efq. governor 
of Barbados *. ". 

. * The prefent members of hismajerty's council 
'6f Barbados are: "" '-''' 

Sir John Gibbons, Bart, and K.B. ;; ''' 

Samuel Rous, -^ Conrade Adams, 

John Dottin, I Gedney Clarke, 

Edward Jordan, \^ Francis Ford, ,^^^ >(^ 

Henry Thcrnhil}, ("5 Rob. Brathwaite " 
Abr. Cumberbatch, 
H[enry Frere, 

 • . The 


Iren^us Moe, 

i 89 ] 

The prefent members of the afiembly ol" Bar- 
bados : .-,-.. .,., 

chrin Church 5 srrBe!:;^!:;, I^^^- 

^U'>. , S Samuel Sedgwick, 7 -cf^^r, 

^. George's | g^,^,^ ^^^^j^^^^ J Efqrs. 

_ \, , , 5 Richard Downes, \ -^r 

S- J^^^^ i Benjamin Malony, J ^^^''• 

-'^V7''^;'"""i Henry Holder, ( j,r^ 

^S.Jofeph's I Benjamin Mellowes, i^^^^'^ 

.S, Andrew's 5 J^'^^-^ ^^ Alleyne, J^^ 
:,^» /luuiew t, ^ j^^^^ Maycock, 5 ^ 

o rrM , { William Alleyne, 1 Trr^..- 

n^, Thomas's 4^ ^^ .1,./ }■ Eiqis. 

' ■•'^^'- -■ ^ George Sanders, 3 

- o*T ,--^*-5 Pveynold Gibbes, } T^r.^. • 
S. James s ] Thomas Alleyne, \^^'^'^' 

S Ppf^r'. ' 5 John Denny, I Efcrs. 

S. Peter s | ^^^^^^ Leacock, J ^^'^"' 

htr^^ i>iitey Rowe junior \ ^^^''^ 

ion It. 


I 9« I 


Of its Conftitution. 

'^T^HE government of Barbados ccn~ 
fifts of a governor, who is ap^ 
pointed by the king -, a council of twelve 
men, who are alfo appointed by his 
niajefty, by letters of mandamus -, and 
an aflembly of twenty-two freeholders, 
chofen by a majority of freeholders from 
the feveral parities. Two rep re fen ta- 
tives are returned from each parifti. 
The tnembers of council (as privy 
counfellors) advife and aflifi: the gover- 
nor in all matters relative to the sovern- 
ment : they are alfo a check upon him, 
if he exceeds the bounds of his com- 
million : they (as part of the legiilature) 
form the upper houfe, and in paffing 
2 all 

t 91 ] 

all laws, acl as the houfe of peers la 
Great Britain : tL(?y alfo, with the go- 
vernor, conftitute the courts of Chancery 

■J L""-51_ 

arid Errors, where each member gives 
his opinion in all caufes. The governor 
hath power to appoint and difplace ali 
military officers, and to diffolve the 
affembly ; and alfo to place a negative 
upon all bills : judges of the courts and 
juftices of the peace cannot be appoint- 

ed, Ikit by and with the confent of the 

irT)??"- r vne' ,^'- •."'■;'-< ^m to 

council, whofe approbation or concur- 
rence mud: be obtained when a judge 
is removed from his office. No mem- 

.0 .• 

.'^ Li '. ' 

ber of council can be removed by a 
governor, v/ithout the confent of the 
majority of the cojjncil, unlefs on fomc 
very extraordinary occafion pot fit to be 
divulged tq the whole body. In fiich 

a cafe, 

C S3 1 

a, cafe, the reafons for fuch fufpenfion 
(or removal) are immediately to be 
tranfmitted to the king in council, 
where the member fufpended n^ay 
make his defence. A member of ggu|i- 
cil vacates his feat, by abfentinp; himfelf 
feven years from the council-board, 
without leave of abfence obtained from 
the king, or frcgi the ccmmander In 
chief of the ifland- If there at^ Tefs 
than feven members of council refident 
upon the iiland, the commander in 
chief hath power to fill up to that num- 
ber*, until his maiefty's pleafure is 
known, that the bufinefs of the ifland 
may not be retarded. The governor 
always fits in council, even when afts 
are pafTed ; a practice that feems ^to 
have been euablifl:ied by cuftom only ; 


[ 93 ] 

for it appears to be unconrtitutionaf:' Jt 
is not a cuftom adopted by all the colo-- 
riles. The goveinov, beiides his falary 
^6f two thoufand pounds fterling, pay- 
able out of the four and half per cent. 
Irfntitled to a thffd'of feizuresTbut he 
is reflrained from receiving any prefent 
from the affembly, unlefs as a fettlement 
made by the firfl: affembly he meetfi 
after his arrival. This fettlement has 
latterly been three thoufand pounds per 
annum currency. In the abfence of a 

governor, the fenior member of council 
a£ls as commander in chief; but he 
cannot diffolve an affembly : nor can 
he remove or fufpend any oflicer, civil 
or military, without the confentof feven 
Hiembers of council. In other refpcdls 
he, has the fame power as a governor. 


[ 94 1 

The pr^lident is allowed one half pf 
the lalary and emoluments allotted tp< 
the governor. Five members of council 
make a quorum to tranfa(fl buifinefs. 
and to conflitute a court of Chancery , 
and court of Error; The commander 


in chief collates redois to the panflies ^ 
of the illand, which are eleven. , The, 
redtors perquiiites are confiderable : their 
income eflablifl^ied by law is one hunV 
dred and fifty pounds per annum, ex- 
clufive of all prefents, and other benefits. 
The clergy are all of the church of 
England. The reprefentatives of the 
people are chofen annually by virtue of 
a writ (or commiffion) iffued by the 
governor in council, directed to the 
eideft member of council in each parifh, 
authorizing: him to convene the free- 


t §s J 

fiolders, and to receive their votes i 
aftervtards, a return of the writ, with 
a. certificate of the choice of the free- 
holders, is made to the governor tn. 
council, when the reprefentatives take 
the ftate oaths and oaths of office before 
the governor and council ; which thej 
alfa do upon the acceffion of a nevv 
governor or prefident. The affembly 
chufe their fpeaker, who cannot adt as 
fuch: before he is prefented-to and ap- 
proved by tlie commander- in chief. 
The speaker and eleven other members 
conftitute a houfe for tranfadling of 
bufinefs. They chufe a clerk and mar- 
fhal of their houfe. They may expel 
any <)f their memberSy and- may give 
leave to two of them together to go 
off the illand for fixrmonths. for^reco- 


[ 96 3 • 

very of health. They have power id 
try ,aad, determine all controverted elec- 
tig[js,,a,nd can adjourn themfelves from 
day to day ; all longer adjournments are 
made by the commander in chief, or 
with his leave. They, together with 
the governor and council, annually no- 
minate the agent, the treafurer, the 
{lore- keeper of the mao-azines, the 
comptroller of the excife, the gaugers 
of cafks, and an infpedor of health, 
* Difagreements have formerly arifen 


* About the year 1728a difpute arofe between 
the council and affembly concerning the method 
of iflTuing orders for the public money ; the for- 
mer infifled upon that which was eflabliflied by 
the king's inftrudlions to the governor ; the latter 
had difcovercd, as they thought, a method more 
beneficial to t^ couniryj by making a previous 


[ 97 ] 

fcstween the council and afTembly con- 
cerning the nomination of thefe officers, 
and alfo concerning the liiethod of 
iffuing the public money from the trea- 
fury 5 their difputes have gone fo far. 

application to themfelves necefrar3\ Accordingly 
they framed an excifc-bill in purfuance of this 
fclieme : this bill the council reje^led, and gave 
their reafons for their condu£l : thefe reafons were 
dra\Vh up by a committee, and were fent, together 
with a draught of the bill, to the fecrerary of ftate. 
The <:ondu(ft of the council was approved, and an 
order was fent to the governor to rejedt the draught 
of the excife-bill, as contrary to the conflant ufage 
of Barbados, 8cc. Again, in prefident Berwick's 
time the fame topick was Parted, with fome others 
equally prejudicial to the authority of the gover- 
nor and council ; and the like flagnation was given 
to public bufinefs : but the conduct of the council 
was again approved, and that of the aflembly cen- 
fured. ^ 

H ' that 

t 98 1 

that references have been made to the j 
throne. In paffing all laws, the houfe 

of affembly forms that part of theiif- 
conftitution which the commons houfe 
does in England. Four of the council 
nominated by the governor, and fix of 
the affembly named by the fpeaker/ 
are a committee for fettling the public 
accounts of the ifland ^ among which^ 
num.ber is the treafurer*s account. The 
treafurer cannot pay any public money, 
nor make any particular appropriation 
of money, without an afl: of the ifland, 
or an order from the governor and 
council. Three of the council and four 
of the affembly are appointed a com- 
mittee to correfpond with the agent in 
Greac Britain. The court of Exche- 
quer is held by a chief baron, and four 
3 affifting 

t 99 i 

ailifting barons, appointed by the go- 
vernor and council. Any three make-f 
a court. Barbados is divided into five, 
precinds, though there are eleven pa- 
riflics ', a judge and four affiflants pre- 
fide in each precindt. They hold a 
court of Common Pleas for trial of all 
caufes once every month, from the laft 
Monday in January to the latter end 
of September. From thefe courts ap- 
peals lie in all caufes above ten pounds 
value to the governor and council 3 and 
from them in all caufes above five hun- 
dred pounds to the king and council of 
Great Britain. The chief judges of the 
courts of Common Pleas take the pro- 
bate of all deeds. The governor appoints 
the tv^o mailers in Chancery, the ef^ 
cheator, and foliicitor general. The 

H 2 attorney 

[ 100 ] 

attorney general is appointed by patent ; 

the judge of the vice-admiralty court, 

the regifter, the clerK of the crown, the 

fecretary, and clerk of the council^ the 

provoft marfliah and naval officer are 

appointed by patent. The cafual re^ 

ceiver and auditor general have their 

commiffions from the crown 5 the fur- 
si fi i\u '.:<■>.'!. n • • s  . 

veyor general, and other officers of the 

^ATX/Gliio r.u.n:-.iU njui::^JLi^ .. 

cuftoms are appointed from the depart- 
ment of the treafury i and upon a va.- 
ot ( naiHirnmo:) 10 ) nirn ." lort^i^vog aril 

cancy m the cuftoms the furveyor gene^r 
fal nominates pro tempore. The iuftices 
of the peace are appointed by a com- 
mimon liiucd by the governor with the 
confent of the council ; which com- 
miffipn is generally iffuedfoon after tjie 
appointment of a governor. The go^, 
yeriKJf^r by and with the advice of the; 

z council, 

101 ] 

court of grand feffionSj or general gaol 
delivery ; which court is appointed by 
law to be held twice in every year. 
This court generally holds four days, 
and is formed by the chief juftice, and 
any other five juftices of the peace. 
Six rreeholders from each pariih are 
returned by the eldeft member of coun- 
cii refident in each parifli, by virtue of 
tne governors writ (or commimon) to 
ferve on the grand inquefl. and petty 

-><c^-{-f>rsr - rtts*'-' V'^rrrrttrfrr in- 

juries. This court acquits or condemns 

aiT'crirninals, * the commander in chief 


* Governor Lowther once in the cafe of Brenaa 
granted a pardon ta the CFiminal before trial. A 
pracedure unheard of in the Britifh conflitution, 
incbnfiftent, and unprecedented ; however, the 

H 3 culprit 

[ J02 3 

having^ a right to refpite thoie con» 
demned from time to time. The juf- 
tices in their feveral pariflies hold a 
quarter feffion for the appointment of 
conftables, and redifying of abufes. 
The governor appoints a coroner to 
each pariih. Gunners and matroffes 
belonging to each of the five divifions 
are under the command of the colonels 
of foot to w^hich each divifion belongs j 
but they are appointed by the com- 
mander in chief, at the recommenda- 
tion of the faid colonels. The com-» 
miffioners for taking care of the for- 
tifications are the members of council 
and affembly, and field officers belong- 

eulprlt (v/hofe crime was killing his antagonifl: In 
a duel) was wife enough to retire to England, 
find obtain a pardon from a higher power. 


C ^03 ] 

ing to each precinct. The governor, 
as captain general, ufually prefides at 
the councils of war ; but the commif- 
lion of prefident of the councils of war 
is often granted to the lieutenant gene- 
ral. There are fix regiments of foot 
militia in the ifland, and four of horfe, 
befides a troop called the horfe guards. 
There is an excellent armoury, and alfo 
a good train of artillery in Barbados, 

H 4 Of 

[ ip4 J 

^^i?*^ '*^^' 

tne Trade, Soil, and Climat^, 


^VT ATUPvE hath been bountiful UjJ^ 
"'fortifying the coaft of Barbados, 
.and rendering the greatefl part of th^t, 
ifland inacgeffible to fhips of fifty tor)s 
^nd upwards. An extenfive reef of 
rocks runs from the fouth point eafterly • 
to the north weft. The other part of 

the coaft the inhabitants have at a very 

a. mo 

great expence fortified, by eredling forts^^ 
and batteries within gun-fliot of each 
other^ "the repairs and n:)aintenance of 
which annount to a great charge : aa,. 
expence fo heavy to the country, that .,^ 
it is to be hoped the o;overnment p£v. 
Great Britain will Ibme time or. othefrsl 
by their afiiftance alleviate. 



The plantations of Barbados oppreCr 
fed by taxes/ impoveriflied by mifma-^ 
nagement, and loaded by the great and 
neceiTary expences of their manage- 
ment, yield not now the profits they 
formerly afforded : notwithftanding the 
high effimation Europeans may fet. 
upon Weft India eftates, yet it is an 
indifputable fad:,., that the landed in- 
tdfeft bf Barbados (that is through- 
out the whole ifland) does, not clear 
communibus annis four per cent* efU-'  
mating the principal at what land ufu- 
ally fells for : the deftrudion of the 
woods of that ifland, though it ren- 
ders the country more healthful, hath 
deereafed the quantity of rain, and 
jiath been thereby detrimental to the 


[ 106 1] 

.planters '^'. The foil of Barbados is m 

general fruitful, but very different in 

^- different 

* To bear up agalnfl: fo many difcouragements 
ths utmofi: ikill ought to be exerted in adjufting 
the bufinefs of an eftate ; and though it is true, 
that the want of feafonable weather is fufficient 
to bailie the greatefr abilities of the planter, jet 
it is equally true, that the failure of thefe eflates 
proceeds very frequently from unflvilful manage- 
ment ; fo that when fome eflates that are well 
attended to yield a very profitable income, others 
again afford little or no profit. Indeed it may be 
faid with juflice and propriety, that an eflate as 
often fails from the unfkilfulnefs of the proprietor 
in not maintaining a full quantity of flock upon 
it, as from the unfkilfulnefs of the fteward (or 
manager) : for the former, however, fome rea- 
fonable excufes may be made, as the want of 
.-credit (a circumflance always deflruclive to the 
^ood condition of a Weil-India eftate) or the v/ant 
Qf opportunity to purchafe flock : but ^for^ the 


■[ 107 ] 

different parts of the iilandj anS^TrS- 
quently in the fame eftate. Some foots 


"latter no jufc apology whatever can be offered. 
Thus, notwithftanding the uncertainty of profit, 
the unavoidable expence attending an edate is 
certain, and is inconceivably great. Suppofe, for 
inftance, an eflate of only two hundred and fifty 
acres : to work this properly mufl be maintained 
upon it one hundred and feventy negroes, one 
hundred horned cattle, twelve horfes, forty fheep, 
three tenants (or militia men) fuppofe with three 
in each family, who fupport themfelvcs from the 
profits of the ground allowed them : a (leward (or 
manager) whofe annual falary may be from one 
hundred to one hundred and fifty pounds : an 
under fleward (or driver) a d'fiiiller, and two 
apprentices, whofe falaries together may be forty- 
five pounds per annum : add to this the falaries of 
a town agent and book poller at fifteen or twenty 
pounds each ; of an apothecary at thirty, or forty 
pQUnds^^r anmm j of a farrier at fifteen or twenty ; 


fiord a heavy clay foil, others a light. 
£uci:n"iB.ri;^g a dark heavy,' others a light 


red earth •Tome parts wet and fvvam]f)y, 
others dry and gravelly: but the land, 
alfnofr every where lor tne produdlion 
of fugar,^ 'requires rich manure; the 
preparation of which fliews the fKill of 
the])KnVer, as fome parts or 'the liland 
requir^^iligfitV others a heavy manure ; 

the commirfions of an Englifh agent at two and 

&ni^^h3^lJ>er cent, freight of fugars, taxes, duties, 

repairs of buildings, and many incidental expences : 

nor^mufl we forget the maintenance of the pro- 

priVtoPand his family, with eight or ten fcrvaats. 

Trom thefe particulars may be learnt the reafon*' 

ablenpf^ of the above afler'tion, that the landed- 

intcreil; in general does not neat four per cent. :_ 

nnnually. The land, though long .worn,, will, 

 ^?6giil 'a-j-'-^- '-'vj iii.^ifiii.'^-'- 

it is tlioiight by many good planters, produf:e as ^ 

much as ever it did, affiled by manure. 


[ ^9 •] 

and fametimes both m the fame eftate^ 
The manufafture of fugar is ingeniou|^ 
as well as ufeful. It is attend^ ,.witk 
ereat labour and expence, and requires 
ikill and induftry to perfefl: It. It. was 
very early introduced into this colony... . 

, The trade of Barbados is yet flouriOi-t 

in? and conliderable, ,. notwitbftandin^ 

the difcoLiragements given to it by taxes, 

by duties, by the acceffion of the large 

ifland of Jamaica, by the con^ikK of 

Grenada, by the acquifition of the late 
_..,^ . -.n . 01 3v/ jlum ton 

neutral iflands, by granting a free port,^ 
ta^^Ppminique, the didillation of 
fpirits upon the continent of America^ 
by the want of a proper ftandarJ or' 
regulation of the value of gold through-' 
out the Weft India iflands ; and laftis'^j . 
^ by 

t "o V 

by the clandeftine trade, which the 
Dutch of St. Euftatia have formerly been 
famed for. 

The annual internal expence of 
Barbados amounts to fixteen thoufand 
pounds, befides the confiderable duties 
paid to the mother country* Bridge^^ 
town *j the metropolis of that iiland 
before the two deftruftive fires in 1766, 
confiftedof about fifteen hundred dwell- 
ing-houfes and ftores, chiefly built of 
brick and ftone, and which were in 
general fpacious, and elegantly decent : 
the rents of the houfes amounted to 

* Bridge-town is now rebuilding with a decent 
elegance and uniformity, fome ufeful meafures 
having been taken by the legiflature for that pur* 


[ 11^ 1 

about forty thoufand pounds per annum. 
There are in that iiland three other 
towns of fmaller note, called Ofdn'sj 
St. James's^ and Speight's. 

The great value of Barbados to Great 
Britain is beft known from its vaft con- 
fumption of Britifh and Iriih manufac- 
tures and commodities : add to this the 
wealth expended by, and the con- 
fumption of Barbadians who reiide in^ 
England : normufi: we forget the large 
amount of the king's cufloms arifing: 
from the produce of this colony. It is 
judged, according to an accurate calcu-^ 
lation, that four hundred fhips of one 
hundred and thirty tons and upwards 
are employed in the trade of this ifland : 
from hence a nurfery and fupport of 


C 112 ] 

feamen. It is fuppofed too, tha/ the- 
value of the exports from Great Britain 
alone, imported into this ifland, in cer- 
tificate goods, Britifli produce, and ma- 
nufadlures, is about eighty thoufand 
pounds per ajinumi The goods fent 
from Great Britain are chiefly woolen,- 
linen, Manchefter velvets, filk, iron, 
brafs, copper, leather, laces for linen, 
hats, wigs, fhoes, ftockings, china, giafs^ 
earthen wares, pidlures, clocks, watches^ 
jewels, plate, gold and fiiver lace, me- 
dicineSj oats, peafe, beans, cheefe, bacon, 
ftarch, oatmeal, gunpowder, bricks, tiles, 
lead, paint, oil, coals, cordage, fugar 
pots, and drips, hoops, pewter, foap^ 
candles, fnufF, cut tobacco, pipes, cards, 
refined fugar, wine, beer, ale, cyder, 
perry, fpice, fruit, tea, pickles, guns, 
-^ fwords. 

[ "3 ] 

fvvords, piftols, walking canes, 
horfes, mules, grind-ftones, paving- 
ftones, books, toys, ftationary, cutlery, 
Birmingham, and haberdafliery wares, 
coaches, chariots, chaifes, all forts of 
houfhold goods, &c. befides the fupplies 
from Ireland, and the very coniiderable 
importations of timber, fifh, &c. from 
the northern colonies : add to this the 
trade to Madeira and the coaft of Africa, 
from which lad place the importation 
of negroes is very great : a trade that 
employs many fhips belonging to Briftol, 
Liverpool, Lancafter, and Glafgow, as 
well as from London. 

As to the exports of Barbados, fugar 
is its ftaple : the following is a com- 
putation, taken from good authority, 

I of 

[ "4 ] 

of what may have been the exports of 
Baibados communibus annis ^, 

Shipt to London, Briflo^, 
Liverpool, Lancafler, 
Falmouth, Whitehaven, 
and moft other parts of 
Great Britain ; the rum 
is ufualiy re-fhipt to Ire- 

to Philadelphia,^ rjijQ^ 
toVIrginia and Maryland. 

*.'*'. i 

2200o.hhds. or lugar, 
6000 hhds. of rum, 
.^670 bags and barrels 

,-, (ioo.bags of cotton, 

500 nhds of fugar, 
j^ 1650 hhds of rum, 
lb of molaiTes, 

• 580 hhds. of fugar, 
2,580 of rum, 

22 of molaffes, 

700, hhds. of fugar 
2020 of rum, 
.?t- ^o of molafTes, 

, ^ 100 hhds. of fugar, 7 
450 of rum, 5 

280 hhds. of fugar, 7 

1050 of rum, 5 

120 hhds. of fugar, 
1500 --» — of rum, 

20 of mo- 

40 hhds. of fugar, 
180 of rum, 

* zzoOvhhds. of fugar, and 7000 of rum, are fuppofed to \)z 
confirmed annually in the ifl^nd. An hhd. of fugar weigh-s 
fiQm izto 1600 wt. an hhd. of rum contains 100 gallons. 

to New England. ^ 

to New York and Jcrfey. 
to N. and S. Caroling. 

to Newfoundland* 

to Bermudas, jjijjj 

''' From the abbve calculation rriay fee 
karnt the great utility of this colony 
al8ne to the mother country ; not only 

,hy .the fupply of ^ its manufadures, 

^wnicn prevents large lums or money 
from being carried out of England to 
purchafe thefe cornmodities in foreign 
countries, but alfo by: employing and 
fupporting a very great number of fea- 
men, artificers, and manufadurexs, who 
are concerned in the feveral branches 
of trade dependent on the fugar iflands. 

'If then this fmall colony is fo ufeful to 
Great Britain, as from hence it appears 
to be, of how much more confequence 
muft all her colonies together be found ? 
Surely of fo much benefit, as to be in- 
titled always to her proteQion, encou- 

-ragementy and affiflance. From their 
>.no[;: ■.:mjm I 2 refourccs 

[ "6 ] 

refouixes the colonies claim a {have of 
the merit of having raifed Great Britain 
to be one of the firft kingdoms in Eu- 
rope for power and opulence, as fhe is 
undoubtedly the iirit country in the 
world for affording every convenience 
and bleffing of life. 

The v/hite inhabitants of Barbados 
are computed to be about twenty-tv^o 
thoufand, and the flaves to be about 
feventy-two thoufand ^ : a large number 


* A flatc of flavery naturally fills an European 
mind with Ideas of pity and deteftation, and fiir- 
nifhes a plaufible obje^lion againfl thofe countries 
that admit it : but when we coniider (what really 
is the cafe) that the negro flaves are conflantly 
fupplied with food, with cloaths, with houfes, 
with apothecaries to infpecl their health ; all which 

5 create 

[ 1^7 ] 

to be maintained in an iiland not more 
than thirty miles long, and twenty 
broad. In Barbados, in St. John*s pafifh, 
about ten or twelve miles from Bridp:e- 
town, is a college for the education of 
youth ; and a very large eftate, capable 
of clearing three thoufand pounds per 
annum Englifh (or Sterling) money, 

was left by Mr. Codrington to fupport 


create a laro;e annual expence to their maflers : 
that though they labour much, yet that they have 
their hours, and fometimes days of recreation, we 
are excited to conclude their fi tuation to be le^s 
miferable than that of the poor inhabitants of 
many European countries : nor have the Haves 
that idea of liberty which European nations have ; 
and which, if they pofreffcd, would tend much to 
heighten their wretchednefs ; but their ignorance 
in a great meafure alleviates their unhappinefs, 
and adds -.o their content. 

:.^2>:313 this 

[ ii8 1 

this charitable inftitution : from whence, 
under ^yoper regulatiq^?, many advan- 
tages might be enjoyed by the inhabit- 
ants of that ifland. There are two 
ftreams in Barbados called rivers (be- 
fides the Mole-head) one in the eaft, 
and the other in the fouth weft part of 
the ifland. In the center are feveral 
bituminous fprings, fome of which fur- 
nlili the green tar^^^f.grpat ufe in many 
diftempers, and often fupplies the want 
of pitch and lamp oil. 

Barbados abounds with wells of ex-» 
ceeding good water, and contains large 
refervoirs of rain water : the woods that 
formerly did grov/ here have been de-^^ 
ftroyed, and the land converted into 
corn and cans fields ; and thus the, 


[ 119 ] 

ifland prefents to the eye tha'^Moft 
beautiful appearance of fpring, fummer, 
and autumn : nor is there any place iii 
the Weft-Indies comparable to Barbados 
for the elegancies and conveniencies of 
life. The fruits are feldom or never 
out' of feafon, and are by no mean's 
inferior to the European fruits *. 

'-^f The climate, though warm, is by no 
means unhealthful. The heat is much 
alleviated by a conftant cool fea breeze; 
The glafs (or thermometer) feldom 
exceeds 88, but it is as feldom lower 
than 72. Regularity here, as in almoft 
all countries, will preferve, and fome-r 
times will give, good health, Europe- 

* For their defcrlptlon fee Hughes's Natural 
Hiflory of Barbados. 

- 2 ans^ 

[ 1^0 ] 

ans, when they firft come to this ifland, 
are too negkiTcfiil of the necelTary care 
required in a hot climate, and often feel 
the fatal effed;s of fuch inattention j 
but the natives enjoy good health, and 
frequently live to a very old age. There 
were living in this ifland a few years 
ago, within fix miles of each other, 
five men, whofe ages together exceeded 
four hundred years 3 and there lately 
died in this ifland, at the advanced age 
of one hundred and ten years, Mrs, 
Vaughan, a gentlew^oman who had 
always refided upon the ifland. She 
had eight brothers, and one fifl:er, who 
all lived to fee the youngefl: upwards 
of fixty years old : the longevity of 
of its inhabitants proves the healthful- 
nefs of a country. Nor muil the author 


[ ,21 ] 

of thefe fheets neglecl to relate what 
has fallen within his own obfervation 
on this fubjeft. He knew two gentle- 
men, whofe extreme ill health would 
not permit them to live in England, 
the one on account of a rheumatic, the 
other on account of a gouty complaint, 
much relieved, and their health pre- 
ferved, by exchanging the climate of 
England for that of Barbados. From 
hence let us be taught, not to judge 
too raflily of the inconveniencies of a 
Warm climate. God made all countries 
to be inhabited, and probably he has 
bellowed fome advantages upon thofe 
climates between the tropicks, which 
colder regions want. 


A LIST of the Commanders in Chief of 
Barbados from its Pirft Settlement. 


■''• -^ c £ 

1629 ^'Olonel HenryJIawley appointed Governor 
1 64 1 ;-" pj^ii'jp ]ggi|^ ;Ef^-_ i:'ieiitehant Governor 

^-^¥g'5;tr'Frands Lord Willoughby, T - "•' 
1652 Dar/iel Searle, Efq. ^ f Govferhqrs 

1660 Thomas Modiford, Efq. \- r.cX- 

1661 Humphrey Walrond, Efq. Prefideht 5 

1663 Francis Lord Willoughby, ~^ '^ 

1667 William Lord Willoughby, [-Governors 

1674 Sir Jo^i'than Atkins, Knt. 3 

1680 Richard Dutton, Efq. Governor 
1685 Ed\yin Stede, Lieutenant Governor 

1 690 James Kendal, Efq. 7 (. ^^s 

J 694 The Hon. James RiifTel, 3 

1696 Francis Bond, Efq. Prefident 

1698 Th« Hon. Ralph Grey, Governor 

1 70 1 John Farmer, Efq. Prefident 

1703 Sir Bevill Granvill, Kqt. 1 

I joy Mitford Crow, Efq. ^Governors 

•17 J I Robert Lowther, Efq. 3 

^714 WiUiam Sharpe, Efq. Prefident 

1 71 5 Robert Lowther, Efq. Governor 

1720 John Frere, Efq. Prefident 

J721 Samuel Cox, Efq. Prefident 

J 722 Henry Worfley, Efq. Governor 

1731 Samuel Berwick Efq. ? Prefidents 

J732 James Dottin, Elq. 3 

1733 I^of4 


1722 Lord Vifcount Howe, Governor'^. 

1735 James Dottin, Efq. Prefident 

^n,.- 1739 Robert Byng, Efq. Governor 

1011740 James Dottin, Efq. Preiident 

1742 Sir Thomas Robin fon, Bart. 7 ., 
,.p.i 747 The Hon. Henry Grenville, j Governors 

1753 Ralph Weekes, Efq. Prefident 

175^ Charles Pinfold, Efq. Governor 

1766 Samuel Rous, Efq. Prefident 

^'^^^67 William Spry, Efq. Governor, 



f.A N I S>